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Fusion Science and Technology
Penfield and Enos: Outage planning in the COVID-19 era
Energy Harbor’s Beaver Valley plant, located about 34 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, Pa., was one of many nuclear sites preparing for a scheduled outage as the coronavirus pandemic intensified in March. The baseline objective of any planned outage—to complete refueling on time and get back to producing power—was complicated by the need to prevent the transmission of COVID-19.
While over 200 of the plant’s 850 staff members worked from home to support the outage, about 800 contractors were brought in for jobs that could only be done on-site. Nuclear News Staff Writer Susan Gallier talked with Beaver Valley Site Vice President Rod Penfield and General Plant Manager Matt Enos about the planning and communication required.
Beaver Valley can look forward to several more outages in the future, now that plans to shut down the two Westinghouse pressurized water reactors, each rated at about 960 MWe, were reversed in March. “The deactivation announcement happened in the middle of all our planning,” Enos said. “It’s a shame we haven’t had a chance to get together as a large group and celebrate that yet.”
While the focus remains on safe pandemic operations, the site now has two causes for celebration: an outage success and a long future ahead.
B. Zhao, S. A. Musa, S. I. Abdel-Khalik, M. Yoda
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 72 | Number 3 | October 2017 | Pages 294-299
Technical Paper | dx.doi.org/10.1080/15361055.2017.1333827
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
The helium-cooled modular divertor with multiple jets (HEMJ) can potentially accommodate the large steady-state heat fluxes expected in future long-pulse magnetic fusion reactors. This work, which is part of the joint US-Japan PHENIX collaboration, describes recent results on a single HEMJ “finger” unit obtained in a helium loop operating at prototypical pressures of ~10 MPa. A new heater was used to increase the maximum coolant inlet temperature ≤ 400°C (vs. the prototypical value of 600°C) at incident heat fluxes ≤ 4.5 MW/m2 at these elevated temperatures. The effect of varying the jet-to-impingement surface separation distance H from 0.47 mm to 1.49 mm was also studied for mass flow rates ≤ 8 g/s. Numerical simulations of this HEMJ test section were also performed to obtain local information that could not be measured in the experiments.
Varying H within this range appears to have little effect on both the dimensionless heat transfer coefficient, or Nusselt number , and the dimensionless pressure drop across the HEMJ, or loss coefficient . The experimental measurements do, however, give lower after re-calibration of the differential pressure transducer; these results are now in better agreement with numerical predictions compared with previous experimental data. The experimental results obtained at higher and for are, however, lower than those predicted by a correlation for obtained from extensive measurements taken at lower temperatures in the same facility. These initial results require further examination because they are contradicted by the numerical predictions. If these results are valid, they suggest that the maximum heat flux that can be accommodated by a divertor module may be lower than expected.