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Fusion Science and Technology
Researchers report fastest purification of astatine-211 needed for targeted cancer therapy
Astatine-211 recovery from bismuth metal using a chromatography system. Unlike bismuth, astatine-211 forms chemical bonds with ketones.
In a recent study, Texas A&M University researchers have described a new process to purify astatine-211, a promising radioactive isotope for targeted cancer treatment. Unlike other elaborate purification methods, their technique can extract astatine-211 from bismuth in minutes rather than hours, which can greatly reduce the time between production and delivery to the patient.
“Astatine-211 is currently under evaluation as a cancer therapeutic in clinical trials. But the problem is that the supply chain for this element is very limited because only a few places worldwide can make it,” said Jonathan Burns, research scientist in the Texas A&M Engineering Experiment Station’s Nuclear Engineering and Science Center. “Texas A&M University is one of a handful of places in the world that can make astatine-211, and we have delineated a rapid astatine-211 separation process that increases the usable quantity of this isotope for research and therapeutic purposes.”
The researchers added that this separation method will bring Texas A&M one step closer to being able to provide astatine-211 for distribution through the Department of Energy’s Isotope Program’s National Isotope Development Center as part of the University Isotope Network.
Details on the chemical reaction to purify astatine-211 are in the journal Separation and Purification Technology.
M. Cengher, J. Lohr, I. A. Gorelov, W. H. Grosnickle, D. Ponce, P. Johnson
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 55 | Number 2 | February 2009 | Pages 213-218
Technical Paper | Electron Cyclotron Emission and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating | dx.doi.org/10.13182/FST09-A4073
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
The measurement of the power injected by the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) system in the DIII-D tokamak is a critical requirement for analysis of experiments, for tuning the gyrotrons for maximum power and efficiency, for tracking long-term operational trends, and for providing a warning of problems with the system. The ECH system at General Atomics consists of six 110-GHz, 1-MW-class gyrotrons. The radio-frequency (rf) power generated by each gyrotron is determined from calorimetry, using the relevant temperature and flow measurements from the cooling circuits of the cavity, matching optics unit, and dummy loads (DLs). The rf pulse length and time dependence are measured using an rf monitor at the first miter bend in the transmission line. The cavity power loading measured directly gives the generated rf power using a previously determined relationship between cavity loading and rf production. The direct measurement of the efficiencies of four of the transmission lines was performed using a high-power DL placed alternately in two positions of each DIII-D waveguide line, at accessible points close to the beginning and the end of each line. Total losses in the transmission lines range from 21.2 to 30.7%. Experimental results are compared to theoretical predictions of the performance of the components and waveguide lines.