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Fusion Science and Technology
A day in the life of the nuclear community
The November issue of Nuclear News is focused on the individuals who make up our nuclear community.
We invited a small group of those individuals to tell us about their day-to-day work in some of the many occupations and applications of nuclear science and technology, and they responded generously. They were ready to tell us about the part they play, together with colleagues and team members, in supplying clean energy, advancing technology, protecting safety and health, and exploring fundamental science.
In these pages, we see a community that can celebrate both those workdays that record progress moving at a steady pace and the exceptional days when a goal is reached, a briefing is delivered, a contract goes through, a discovery is made, or an unforeseen challenge is overcome.
The Nuclear News staff hopes that you enjoy meeting these members of our community—or maybe get reacquainted with friends—through their words and photos.
Zhangcan Yang, Sophie Blondel, Karl D. Hammond, Brian D. Wirth
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 71 | Number 1 | January 2017 | Pages 60-74
Technical Paper | dx.doi.org/10.13182/FST16-111
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
The object kinetic Monte Carlo code Kinetic Simulations Of Microstructure Evolution (KSOME) was used to study the subsurface helium clustering behavior in tungsten as a function of temperature, helium implantation rate, and vacancy concentration. The simulations evaluated helium implantation fluxes from 1022 to 1026 m−2 · s−1 at temperatures from 473 to 1473 K for 100-eV helium ions implanted below tungsten surfaces and for vacancy concentrations between 1 and 50 parts per million. Such vacancy concentrations far exceed thermodynamic equilibrium values but are consistent with supersaturated concentrations expected during concurrent, or preexisting, neutron irradiation. The thermodynamics and kinetic parameters to describe helium diffusion and clustering are input to KSOME based on values obtained from atomistic simulation results. These kinetic Monte Carlo results clearly delineate two different regimes of helium cluster nucleation, one dominated by helium self-trapping at high implantation rates and lower temperatures and one where helium–vacancy trapping dominates the helium cluster nucleation at lower implantation rates and higher temperatures. The transition between these regimes has been mapped as a function of implantation rate, temperature, and vacancy concentration and can provide guidance to understand the conditions under which neutron irradiation effects may contribute to subsurface gas nucleation in tungsten plasma-facing components.