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2022 ANS Annual Meeting
June 12–16, 2022
Anaheim, CA|Anaheim Hilton
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Fusion Science and Technology
The Atlantic: Build what we’ve already invented
“What if I told you that scientists had figured out a way to produce affordable electricity that was 99 percent safer and cleaner than coal or oil, and that this breakthrough produced even fewer emissions per gigawatt-hour than solar or wind?” That’s the question that Derek Thompson, a staff writer at The Atlantic, asks in his article, "The Forgotten Stage of Human Progress," before revealing, “The breakthrough I’m talking about is 70 years old: It’s nuclear power.”
A. Herrmann, B. Sieglin, M. Faitsch, ASDEX Upgrade Team
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 69 | Number 3 | May 2016 | Pages 569-579
Technical Paper | dx.doi.org/10.13182/FST15-187
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
Monitoring the surface temperature of in-vessel components is part of machine protection. The surface temperature itself and the resulting temperature of the interface to the cooling structure have to be taken into account. The tolerated surface temperature is not a fixed quantity but depends on the heat load scenario. The interface temperature can be calculated by solving the heat diffusion equation and determining the temperature profile inside the target. Surface effects and parasitic radiation falsify the estimated temperature, which is higher than the real bulk temperature. From the machine protection point of view, the contributions are inherently safe. They might result in an early alarm, not justified by the target temperature itself reducing the tolerated operation range. Real-time characterization and quantification can be done by considering the temporal evolution of the measured surface temperature. This is recommended to be done by heat load calculation. Infrared (IR) systems under development allow one to calculate the heat load from the measured photon flux in real time. The impact of surface effects and parasitic radiation on the calculated temperature is dependent on wavelength. A suitable compromise for an IR system is a mid-wave IR system. It should be combined with a near-IR system for temperature validation at higher temperatures.