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Fusion Science and Technology
Penfield and Enos: Outage planning in the COVID-19 era
Energy Harbor’s Beaver Valley plant, located about 34 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, Pa., was one of many nuclear sites preparing for a scheduled outage as the coronavirus pandemic intensified in March. The baseline objective of any planned outage—to complete refueling on time and get back to producing power—was complicated by the need to prevent the transmission of COVID-19.
While over 200 of the plant’s 850 staff members worked from home to support the outage, about 800 contractors were brought in for jobs that could only be done on-site. Nuclear News Staff Writer Susan Gallier talked with Beaver Valley Site Vice President Rod Penfield and General Plant Manager Matt Enos about the planning and communication required.
Beaver Valley can look forward to several more outages in the future, now that plans to shut down the two Westinghouse pressurized water reactors, each rated at about 960 MWe, were reversed in March. “The deactivation announcement happened in the middle of all our planning,” Enos said. “It’s a shame we haven’t had a chance to get together as a large group and celebrate that yet.”
While the focus remains on safe pandemic operations, the site now has two causes for celebration: an outage success and a long future ahead.
Yasuhisa Oya, Misaki Sato, Hiromichi Uchimura, Naoko Ashikawa, Akio Sagara, Naoaki Yoshida, Yuji Hatano, Kenji Okuno
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 67 | Number 3 | April 2015 | Pages 515-518
Proceedings of TRITIUM 2013 | dx.doi.org/10.13182/FST14-T68
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
The effect of carbon implantation for the dynamic recycling of deuterium, which demonstrates tritium recycling, including retention and sputtering, was investigated using in-situ sputtered particle measurements. The C+ implanted W, WC and HOPG were prepared and dynamic sputtered particles were measured during H2 + irradiation. It was found that the major hydrocarbon species for C+ implanted tungsten was found to be CH3, although those for WC and HOPG were CH4. The chemical state of hydrocarbon is controlled by the H concentration in a W-C mixed layer. The amount of C-H bond and the retention of H trapped by carbon atom should control the chemical form of hydrocarbon sputtered by H2+ irradiation and the desorption of CH3 and CH2 was due to chemical sputtering, although that for CH was physical sputtering. The activation energy for CH3 desorption was estimated to be 0.4 eV, corresponding to the trapping process of hydrogen by carbon through the diffusion in W. It was concluded that the chemical states of hydrocarbon sputtered by H2+ irradiation for W was determined by the amount of C-H bond on the W surface.