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Fusion Science and Technology
Penfield and Enos: Outage planning in the COVID-19 era
Energy Harbor’s Beaver Valley plant, located about 34 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, Pa., was one of many nuclear sites preparing for a scheduled outage as the coronavirus pandemic intensified in March. The baseline objective of any planned outage—to complete refueling on time and get back to producing power—was complicated by the need to prevent the transmission of COVID-19.
While over 200 of the plant’s 850 staff members worked from home to support the outage, about 800 contractors were brought in for jobs that could only be done on-site. Nuclear News Staff Writer Susan Gallier talked with Beaver Valley Site Vice President Rod Penfield and General Plant Manager Matt Enos about the planning and communication required.
Beaver Valley can look forward to several more outages in the future, now that plans to shut down the two Westinghouse pressurized water reactors, each rated at about 960 MWe, were reversed in March. “The deactivation announcement happened in the middle of all our planning,” Enos said. “It’s a shame we haven’t had a chance to get together as a large group and celebrate that yet.”
While the focus remains on safe pandemic operations, the site now has two causes for celebration: an outage success and a long future ahead.
Alexey Golubev, Yuri Balashov, Sergey Mavrin, Valentina Golubeva, Dan Galeriu
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 67 | Number 2 | March 2015 | Pages 349-352
Proceedings of TRITIUM 2013 | dx.doi.org/10.13182/FST14-T27
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
Washout coefficient Λ is widely used as a parameter in washout models. These models describes overall HTO washout with rain by the first-order kinetic equation, while washout coefficient Λ depends on the type of rain event and rain intensity and empirical parameters a, b. It was shown recently that variations of published data of washout coefficient are significant. Thus Λ = 10−4 sec−1 for the light rain event (∼ 1 mm-hour−1) while Λ = 10−3 sec−1 for heavy rain (∼ 25 mm-hour−1). Canadian standard recommends washout coefficient of 1.8-10−4 sec−1, German standard gives 3.5-10−5sec−1, while published Japan data varies from Λ = (7.3 ± 4.1)-10−5 sec−1 at 2 mm hour−1 to Λ = 4.6-10−4 sec−1 for the same rain intensity. This means that further investigations of HTO washout process are required. One of the issues is determining the useful relationship between macroscopic parameter of HTO washout Λ and microscopic HTO exchange rate of HTO molecules in atmosphere and in the raindrop water. Approaches to address this issue have been presented elsewhere. It can be shown that the empirical parameters a, b can be represented through the rain event characteristics using the relationships for molecular impact rate, rain intensity and specific rain water content while washout coefficient can be represented through the exchange rate K, rain intensity, raindrop diameter and terminal raindrop velocity.