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Fusion Science and Technology
Penfield and Enos: Outage planning in the COVID-19 era
Energy Harbor’s Beaver Valley plant, located about 34 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, Pa., was one of many nuclear sites preparing for a scheduled outage as the coronavirus pandemic intensified in March. The baseline objective of any planned outage—to complete refueling on time and get back to producing power—was complicated by the need to prevent the transmission of COVID-19.
While over 200 of the plant’s 850 staff members worked from home to support the outage, about 800 contractors were brought in for jobs that could only be done on-site. Nuclear News Staff Writer Susan Gallier talked with Beaver Valley Site Vice President Rod Penfield and General Plant Manager Matt Enos about the planning and communication required.
Beaver Valley can look forward to several more outages in the future, now that plans to shut down the two Westinghouse pressurized water reactors, each rated at about 960 MWe, were reversed in March. “The deactivation announcement happened in the middle of all our planning,” Enos said. “It’s a shame we haven’t had a chance to get together as a large group and celebrate that yet.”
While the focus remains on safe pandemic operations, the site now has two causes for celebration: an outage success and a long future ahead.
C. E. Kessel, F. M. Poli
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 67 | Number 1 | January 2015 | Pages 220-239
Technical Paper | dx.doi.org/10.13182/FST14-793
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
The conservative physics and conservative technology tokamak power plant ARIES-ACT2 has a major radius of 9.75 m at an aspect ratio of 4.0 and has strong shaping with elongation of 2.2 and triangularity of 0.63. The plasma current is 14 MA, and the toroidal field at the plasma major radius is 8.75 T, making the maximum field at the toroidal field coil 16 T. The no-wall βN reaches ∼2.4, limited by n = 1 external kink mode, and can be extended to 3.2 with a stabilizing shell behind the ring structure shield. The bootstrap current fraction is 77% with a q95 of 8.0, requiring ∼4.0 MA of external current drive. This current is supplied with 30 MW of ion cyclotron radio frequency/fast wave and 80 MW of negative ion neutral beams. Up to 1.0 MA can be driven with lower hybrid (LH) with no wall, and 1.5 or more MA can be driven with a stabilizing shell. Electron cyclotron was examined and is most effective for safety factor control over ρ ∼0.2 to 0.6 with 20 MW. The pedestal density is ∼0.65 × 1020/m3, and the temperature is ∼9.0 keV. The H98 factor is 1.25, n/nGr = 1.3, and the net power to LH threshold power is 1.3 to 1.4 in the flattop. Because of the high toroidal field and high central temperature, the cyclotron radiation loss was found to be high depending on the first-wall reflectivity.