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Fusion Science and Technology
Penfield and Enos: Outage planning in the COVID-19 era
Energy Harbor’s Beaver Valley plant, located about 34 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, Pa., was one of many nuclear sites preparing for a scheduled outage as the coronavirus pandemic intensified in March. The baseline objective of any planned outage—to complete refueling on time and get back to producing power—was complicated by the need to prevent the transmission of COVID-19.
While over 200 of the plant’s 850 staff members worked from home to support the outage, about 800 contractors were brought in for jobs that could only be done on-site. Nuclear News Staff Writer Susan Gallier talked with Beaver Valley Site Vice President Rod Penfield and General Plant Manager Matt Enos about the planning and communication required.
Beaver Valley can look forward to several more outages in the future, now that plans to shut down the two Westinghouse pressurized water reactors, each rated at about 960 MWe, were reversed in March. “The deactivation announcement happened in the middle of all our planning,” Enos said. “It’s a shame we haven’t had a chance to get together as a large group and celebrate that yet.”
While the focus remains on safe pandemic operations, the site now has two causes for celebration: an outage success and a long future ahead.
M. Yoda, S. I. Abdel-Khalik, D. L. Sadowski, B. H. Mills, J. D. Rader
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 67 | Number 1 | January 2015 | Pages 142-157
Technical Paper | dx.doi.org/10.13182/FST14-792
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
Current predictions suggest that the target plate of a divertor, as one of the few solid surfaces directly exposed to the plasma of a magnetic fusion energy reactor, will be subject to steady-state heat fluxes as great as 10 MW/m2. Developing appropriate methods for cooling these divertors with helium is therefore a major technological challenge for plasma-facing components. This paper reviews dynamically similar experimental studies and numerical simulations of the thermal-hydraulic performance of two helium-cooled divertor concepts, the helium-cooled divertor with multiple-jet cooling (HEMJ) and the helium-cooled flat plate divertor, as well as a variant of the HEMJ, the so-called finger-type divertor, performed as part of the ARIES study. The results from these studies are extrapolated to prototypical conditions and used to predict the maximum average heat flux and coolant pumping power requirements for these divertor concepts. These extrapolations can be used to estimate how changes in the operating conditions, such as the helium inlet temperature and the maximum temperature of the divertor pressure boundary, affect thermal performance. Finally, the correlations from these extrapolations are used in the system code developed by the ARIES study.