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Nuclear Science and Engineering
Fusion Science and Technology
Fukiushima Daiichi: 10 years on
The Fukushima Daiichi site before the accident. All images are provided courtesy of TEPCO unless noted otherwise.
It was a rather normal day back on March 11, 2011, at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant before 2:45 p.m. That was the time when the Great Tohoku Earthquake struck, followed by a massive tsunami that caused three reactor meltdowns and forever changed the nuclear power industry in Japan and worldwide. Now, 10 years later, much has been learned and done to improve nuclear safety, and despite many challenges, significant progress is being made to decontaminate and defuel the extensively damaged Fukushima Daiichi reactor site. This is a summary of what happened, progress to date, current situation, and the outlook for the future there.
C. H. Skinner, A. A. Haasz, V. Kh. Alimov, N. Bekris, R. A. Causey, R. E. H. Clark, J. P. Coad, J. W. Davis, R. P. Doerner, M. Mayer, A. Pisarev, J. Roth, T. Tanabe
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 54 | Number 4 | November 2008 | Pages 891-945
Technical Paper | dx.doi.org/10.13182/FST54-891
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
Management of tritium inventory remains one of the grand challenges in the development of fusion energy, and the choice of plasma-facing materials is a key factor for in-vessel tritium retention. The Atomic and Molecular Data Unit of the International Atomic Energy Agency organized a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the overall topic of tritium inventory in fusion reactors during the period 2001-2006. This dealt with hydrogenic retention in ITER's plasma-facing materials - Be, C, and W - and in compounds (mixed materials) of these elements as well as tritium removal techniques. The results of the CRP are summarized in this paper together with recommendations for ITER. Basic parameters of diffusivity, solubility, and trapping in Be, C, and W are reviewed. For Be, the development of open porosity can account for transient hydrogenic pumping, but long-term retention will be dominated by codeposition. Codeposition is also the dominant retention mechanism for carbon and remains a serious concern for both Be- and C-containing layers. Hydrogenic trapping in unirradiated tungsten is low but will increase with ion and neutron damage. Mixed materials will be formed in a tokamak, and these can also retain significant amounts of hydrogen isotopes. Oxidative and photon-based techniques for detritiation of plasma-facing components are described.