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Fusion Science and Technology
Researchers report fastest purification of astatine-211 needed for targeted cancer therapy
Astatine-211 recovery from bismuth metal using a chromatography system. Unlike bismuth, astatine-211 forms chemical bonds with ketones.
In a recent study, Texas A&M University researchers have described a new process to purify astatine-211, a promising radioactive isotope for targeted cancer treatment. Unlike other elaborate purification methods, their technique can extract astatine-211 from bismuth in minutes rather than hours, which can greatly reduce the time between production and delivery to the patient.
“Astatine-211 is currently under evaluation as a cancer therapeutic in clinical trials. But the problem is that the supply chain for this element is very limited because only a few places worldwide can make it,” said Jonathan Burns, research scientist in the Texas A&M Engineering Experiment Station’s Nuclear Engineering and Science Center. “Texas A&M University is one of a handful of places in the world that can make astatine-211, and we have delineated a rapid astatine-211 separation process that increases the usable quantity of this isotope for research and therapeutic purposes.”
The researchers added that this separation method will bring Texas A&M one step closer to being able to provide astatine-211 for distribution through the Department of Energy’s Isotope Program’s National Isotope Development Center as part of the University Isotope Network.
Details on the chemical reaction to purify astatine-211 are in the journal Separation and Purification Technology.
J. L. Doane
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 53 | Number 1 | January 2008 | Pages 159-173
Technical Paper | Special Issue on Electron Cyclotron Wave Physics, Technology, and Applications - Part 2 | dx.doi.org/10.13182/FST08-A1662
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
Low-loss circular waveguides will be needed for a large number of millimeter-wave transmission lines on ITER, including those transmitting electron cyclotron power and diagnostic signals. In order to provide low-loss transmission, the waveguides need to be several wavelengths in diameter. Corrugating the walls reduces the loss further not only in straight runs but also at bends, and makes the waveguide robust against small deformations. We present results of theoretical calculations showing that these properties can be maintained over very wide bandwidths suitable for ITER applications. The computer code used to make these calculations is based on a space-harmonic analysis of the fields. Measurements on waveguides are described that validate the theory for corrugated waveguides semiquantitatively. Tolerances on the corrugation geometry, waveguide bore, waveguide junctions, input Gaussian beam alignment, and waveguide support alignment are discussed. It is shown that the low-loss properties of corrugated waveguide are insensitive to many variations in geometry and deviations from ideality. Finally, some fabrication considerations are presented. In order to provide more complete coverage of the waveguides themselves, only brief mention is made of the losses due to input coupling and components such as bends. Some review material and some level of technical detail are both presented.