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Fusion Science and Technology
Fukiushima Daiichi: 10 years on
The Fukushima Daiichi site before the accident. All images are provided courtesy of TEPCO unless noted otherwise.
It was a rather normal day back on March 11, 2011, at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant before 2:45 p.m. That was the time when the Great Tohoku Earthquake struck, followed by a massive tsunami that caused three reactor meltdowns and forever changed the nuclear power industry in Japan and worldwide. Now, 10 years later, much has been learned and done to improve nuclear safety, and despite many challenges, significant progress is being made to decontaminate and defuel the extensively damaged Fukushima Daiichi reactor site. This is a summary of what happened, progress to date, current situation, and the outlook for the future there.
Peter Song, Joe Holder, Bruce Young, Dan Kalantar, David Eder, Joe Kimbrough
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 52 | Number 4 | November 2007 | Pages 1035-1039
Technical Paper | Plasma Engineering and Diagnostics | dx.doi.org/10.13182/FST07-A1631
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is preparing for the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) scheduled in 2010. The NIC is comprised of several "tuning" physics sub-campaigns leading up to a demonstration of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ignition. Some of these experiments requires to use the NIF streak x-ray detector (SXD) to measure fuel capsule trajectory (shock timing) or x-ray "bang-time" from time-resolved x-ray imaging of the imploding capsule fuelled with pure tritium (T) instead of a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture. The resulting prompt neutron fluence at the planned SXD location (~1.7 m from the target) would be ~ 1.4e9/cm2. Previous measurements suggest the onset of significant background at a neutron fluence of ~ 1e8/cm2 and the radiation damage and operational upsets which start at ~ 1e8 rad-Si/sec must be factored into an integrated experimental campaign plan. Monte Carlo analyses were performed to predict the neutron and gamma/x-ray fluences and radiation doses for the proposed diagnostic configuration. A possible shielding configuration is proposed to mitigate radiation effects. The primary component of this shielding is an 80 cm thickness of Polyethylene (PE) between target chamber center (TCC) and the SXD diagnostic. Additionally, 6-8 cm of PE around the detector reduces the large number of neutrons that scatter off the inside of the target chamber. This proposed shielding configuration reduces the high-energy neutron fluence at the SXD by approximately a factor of ~50.