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Fusion Science and Technology
Fukiushima Daiichi: 10 years on
The Fukushima Daiichi site before the accident. All images are provided courtesy of TEPCO unless noted otherwise.
It was a rather normal day back on March 11, 2011, at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant before 2:45 p.m. That was the time when the Great Tohoku Earthquake struck, followed by a massive tsunami that caused three reactor meltdowns and forever changed the nuclear power industry in Japan and worldwide. Now, 10 years later, much has been learned and done to improve nuclear safety, and despite many challenges, significant progress is being made to decontaminate and defuel the extensively damaged Fukushima Daiichi reactor site. This is a summary of what happened, progress to date, current situation, and the outlook for the future there.
T. Hayashi, T. Suzuki, W. M. Shu, T. Yamanishi
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 52 | Number 3 | October 2007 | Pages 706-710
Technical Paper | The Technology of Fusion Energy - Tritium, Safety, and Environment | dx.doi.org/10.13182/FST07-A1573
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
In order to establish a proper control method of the DT fuel isotope balance in ITER, isotopic composition of hydrogen, which was released rapidly from the metal hydride bed by vacuum pump, was investigated using a ZrCo bed (1/10 scale of ITER fuel storage & delivery system) as functions of initially stored H/D ratio and temperature. The equilibrium pressure (P) of hydrogen - metal system has large isotope effect such as PH2 < PD2 < PT2 for ZrCo, however, the difference of H,D isotope fractions was within about 5%, during rapid delivery of about 90% hydrogen gases at 623 K and initial H:D of 1:1. In cases of initial H:D of 9:1 or 1:9, the differences of H,D isotope fractions were rather small of a few %. Even if the fluctuation of the isotope ratio is less than 5%, depending on the requirements from plasma physics experiments and fuel accountancy of tritium plant, batch fuel delivery from adequate gas tanks after isotope composition adjustment will be preferable to direct rapid delivery from storage bed.