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Fusion Science and Technology
Fukiushima Daiichi: 10 years on
The Fukushima Daiichi site before the accident. All images are provided courtesy of TEPCO unless noted otherwise.
It was a rather normal day back on March 11, 2011, at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant before 2:45 p.m. That was the time when the Great Tohoku Earthquake struck, followed by a massive tsunami that caused three reactor meltdowns and forever changed the nuclear power industry in Japan and worldwide. Now, 10 years later, much has been learned and done to improve nuclear safety, and despite many challenges, significant progress is being made to decontaminate and defuel the extensively damaged Fukushima Daiichi reactor site. This is a summary of what happened, progress to date, current situation, and the outlook for the future there.
Y. S. Bae, Y. S. Na, Y. K. Oh, M. Kwon, J. S. Bak, G. S. Lee, J. H. Jeong, S. I. Park, M. H. Cho, W. Namkung, R. A. Ellis, H. Park, K. Sakamoto, K. Takahashi, T. Yamamoto
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 52 | Number 2 | August 2007 | Pages 321-333
Technical Paper | Electron Cyclotron Wave Physics, Technology, and Applications - Part 1 | dx.doi.org/10.13182/FST07-A1510
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
An 84-GHz, 500-kW electron cyclotron (EC) heating (ECH) system is under installation for ECH-assisted start-up in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) facility. An 84-GHz, 500-kW gyrotron, and 1.5-MVA power supply system have been installed at KSTAR, and the initial test of the gyrotron has been carried out with a short-pulse condition of 20 s and maximum beam parameters of 80 kV and 25 A that generate an output radio-frequency (rf) power of 500 kW. The planned 2-s-long operation with 500-kW rf output power is beginning with a long-pulse test of the gyrotron power supply. The launcher system was fabricated in collaboration with Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. It will inject 500-kW rf power into the KSTAR plasma with a highly flexible steering mirror system, allowing toroidal and poloidal beam deposition scans. KSTAR will employ 170-GHz EC current drive (CD) in ITER-relevant experiments such as the suppression of the neoclassical tearing modes and the creation of an electron internal transport barrier. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency will provide a 170-GHz, 1-MW gyrotron on loan in 2008 in accordance with a Korea-Japan fusion collaboration agreement, and it will be used for the 170-GHz, 1-MW ECCD system in 2010. This paper describes the current status of the installation and initial conditioning tests of the 84-GHz gyrotron system as well as the development plan of the 170-GHz ECH and CD system. Also, this paper discusses the CD efficiency and the steering range of the second-harmonic X-mode injection at 170 GHz and 5 MW from an equatorial launcher.