The Wendelstein 7X (W7-X) stellarator (R = 5.5 m, a = 0.55 m, B < 3.0 T), which at present is being built at Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Greifswald, aims at demonstrating the inherent steady-state capability of stellarators at reactor-relevant plasma parameters. A 10-MW electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) plant with continuous-wave (cw) capability is under construction to meet the scientific objectives. The physics background of the different heating and current drive scenarios is presented. The expected plasma parameters are calculated for different transport assumptions. A newly developed ray-tracing code is used to calculate selected reference scenarios and optimize the electron cyclotron launcher and in-vessel structure. Examples are discussed, and the technological solutions for optimum wave coupling are presented. The ECRH plant consists of ten radio-frequency (rf) modules with 1 MW of power each at 140 GHz. The rf beams are transmitted to the W7-X torus (typically 60 m) via two open multibeam mirror lines with a power-handling capability, which would already satisfy the ITER requirements (24 MW). Integrated full-power, cw tests of two rf modules (gyrotrons and the related transmission line sections) are reported, and the key features of the gyrotron and transmission line technology are presented. As the physics and technology of ECRH for both W7-X and ITER have many similarities, test results from the W7-X ECRH may provide valuable input for the ITER-ECRH plant.