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Fusion Science and Technology
Fukiushima Daiichi: 10 years on
The Fukushima Daiichi site before the accident. All images are provided courtesy of TEPCO unless noted otherwise.
It was a rather normal day back on March 11, 2011, at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant before 2:45 p.m. That was the time when the Great Tohoku Earthquake struck, followed by a massive tsunami that caused three reactor meltdowns and forever changed the nuclear power industry in Japan and worldwide. Now, 10 years later, much has been learned and done to improve nuclear safety, and despite many challenges, significant progress is being made to decontaminate and defuel the extensively damaged Fukushima Daiichi reactor site. This is a summary of what happened, progress to date, current situation, and the outlook for the future there.
Y. Yoshimura, S. Ferrando-Margalet, M. Isobe, C. Suzuki, A. Shimizu, T. Akiyama, C. Takahashi, K. Nagaoka, S. Nishimura, T. Minami, K. Matsuoka, S. Okamura, CHS Group, H. Igami, S. Kubo, T. Shimozuma, T. Notake, T. Mutoh, K. Nagasaki
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 52 | Number 2 | August 2007 | Pages 216-220
Technical Paper | Electron Cyclotron Wave Physics, Technology, and Applications - Part 1 | dx.doi.org/10.13182/FST07-A1500
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
Evident increases in the plasma stored energy by applying 54.5-GHz electron cyclotron (EC) waves have been observed in overdense plasmas sustained by neutral beam injection in the Compact Helical System. The heating effect was seen even for a high density of 8 × 1019 m-3, that is, more than twice the cutoff density of 3.8 × 1019 m-3 of the 54.5-GHz waves. The 54.5-GHz EC wave beams were obliquely injected into high-density plasmas. Dependences of the heating effect on the experimental conditions such as the polarization and the injection power of the EC waves, and the magnetic field were investigated. A higher left-hand circular polarization fraction and higher injection power resulted in a longer plasma duration time and a higher increment of the plasma stored energy. Variation of the electron temperature profile in the magnetic field scan experiment shows the power deposition in the plasma core region inside the plasma cutoff layer. These experimental results show that the main cause for this heating mechanism is electron Bernstein wave heating via an Ordinary-eXtraordinary-Bernstein (O-X-B) mode conversion process.