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Nuclear Science and Engineering
Fusion Science and Technology
Fukiushima Daiichi: 10 years on
The Fukushima Daiichi site before the accident. All images are provided courtesy of TEPCO unless noted otherwise.
It was a rather normal day back on March 11, 2011, at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant before 2:45 p.m. That was the time when the Great Tohoku Earthquake struck, followed by a massive tsunami that caused three reactor meltdowns and forever changed the nuclear power industry in Japan and worldwide. Now, 10 years later, much has been learned and done to improve nuclear safety, and despite many challenges, significant progress is being made to decontaminate and defuel the extensively damaged Fukushima Daiichi reactor site. This is a summary of what happened, progress to date, current situation, and the outlook for the future there.
W. M. Stacey
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 52 | Number 1 | July 2007 | Pages 29-67
Technical Paper | dx.doi.org/10.13182/FST07-A1485
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
The strong temperature dependence, over certain temperature ranges, of the radiation cooling rate of low-Z impurities, of the atomic physics cooling and particle source rates associated with recycling and fueling neutrals, of the ion-electron recombination particle loss rate, of the turbulent transport loss rate, and of the fusion alpha-particle heating rate have all been identified as "drivers" of thermal instabilities in the coupled plasma particle, momentum, and energy balances. This paper surveys the experimental observations of a number of abrupt transition phenomena in plasma operating conditions - i.e., density-limit disruptions, multifaceted asymmetric radiations from the edge (MARFEs), divertor MARFEs, detachment, in-out divertor heat flux asymmetries, H-L and L-H transitions, confinement, and pedestal deterioration - or anticipated in future reactors - i.e., power excursions - their theoretical interpretations in terms of thermal instabilities driven by the temperature dependence of various radiative and atomic physics cooling mechanisms, and a comparison of theoretical prediction with experimental observations. Also surveyed are theoretical predictions of thermal instabilities in the power balance driven by the strong positive temperature dependence of the fusion heating rate.