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Nuclear Science and Engineering
Fusion Science and Technology
Cost drivers of nuclear steam cycle construction
Interest in reducing carbon emissions around the world continues to climb. As a complement to the increasing deployment of variably generating renewables, advanced nuclear is commonly shown in net-zero grid modeling for 2050 because it represents firm electricity production that can flex in output with load demands.1 However, these projections are challenged by the high levelized cost of electricity associated with legacy nuclear construction, which is often more than double that of modern combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plants.
A. Litnovsky, M. Matveeva, D. L. Rudakov, C. P. Chrobak, S. L. Allen, A. W. Leonard, P. L. Taylor, C. P. C. Wong, B. W. N. Fitzpatrick, J. W. Davis, A. A. Haasz, P. C. Stangeby, U. Breuer, V. Philipps, S. Möller
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 62 | Number 1 | July-August 2012 | Pages 97-103
Diagnostics | Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Conference on Fusion Reactor Materials, Part A: Fusion Technology | dx.doi.org/10.13182/FST12-A14119
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
Thermo-oxidation is controlled exposure in an oxygen-containing atmosphere at elevated temperature and is being considered as a technique for the de-tritiation of carbon-based codeposits in ITER. In addition, unplanned oxidation may also occur during accidental air ingress. The impact of thermo-oxidation on ITER diagnostic mirrors causes concerns. A dedicated study was performed in DIII-D, where molybdenum and copper mirrors were installed in the main chamber, in the divertor, and at a location remote from the plasma and exposed for [approximately]2 hours to a mixture containing 80% helium and 20% oxygen at a total pressure of 1.27 kPa. Mirrors in the main chamber and in the divertor were exposed at 350°C to 360°C whereas the temperature of mirrors in the remote area was [approximately]160°C.Reflectivity of all mirrors was degraded after thermo-oxidation showing a decrease in the UV range from 60% to 10% for molybdenum mirrors and a 90% drop for copper mirrors at the wavelength 250 nm. The reflectivity of mirrors exposed at lower temperature was less degraded. Surface analyses revealed formation of oxides on all mirrors.In ITER, shutters planned for mirror protection are ineffective against thermo-oxidation. Nevertheless, in-situ cleaning systems planned for ITER mirrors may efficiently remove oxide layers.