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Fusion Science and Technology
Researchers report fastest purification of astatine-211 needed for targeted cancer therapy
Astatine-211 recovery from bismuth metal using a chromatography system. Unlike bismuth, astatine-211 forms chemical bonds with ketones.
In a recent study, Texas A&M University researchers have described a new process to purify astatine-211, a promising radioactive isotope for targeted cancer treatment. Unlike other elaborate purification methods, their technique can extract astatine-211 from bismuth in minutes rather than hours, which can greatly reduce the time between production and delivery to the patient.
“Astatine-211 is currently under evaluation as a cancer therapeutic in clinical trials. But the problem is that the supply chain for this element is very limited because only a few places worldwide can make it,” said Jonathan Burns, research scientist in the Texas A&M Engineering Experiment Station’s Nuclear Engineering and Science Center. “Texas A&M University is one of a handful of places in the world that can make astatine-211, and we have delineated a rapid astatine-211 separation process that increases the usable quantity of this isotope for research and therapeutic purposes.”
The researchers added that this separation method will bring Texas A&M one step closer to being able to provide astatine-211 for distribution through the Department of Energy’s Isotope Program’s National Isotope Development Center as part of the University Isotope Network.
Details on the chemical reaction to purify astatine-211 are in the journal Separation and Purification Technology.
M. Theobald, C. Chicanne, J. Barnouin, E. Pêche, P. Baclet
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 49 | Number 4 | May 2006 | Pages 757-763
Technical Paper | Target Fabrication | dx.doi.org/10.13182/FST49-757
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
Several low atomic number materials as beryllium, polyimide or hydrocarbon can be suitable as an ablator for high energy class lasers. On CEA Laser "Megajoule" (LMJ) facility, amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H or CHx), is the nominal ablator used to realize inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. These capsules contain the fusible deuterium-tritium mixture to achieve ignition. Coatings are prepared by glow discharge polymerization (GDP) with trans-2-butene and hydrogen and can be easily doped with germanium adding tetramethylgermanium. Laser fusion targets must have optimized characteristics: diameter of 2.4 mm for LMJ targets, thickness up to 167.5 m, sphericity and thickness concentricity better than 99% and an outer and an inner roughness of a few nanometers at high modes. The surface finish of these laser fusion targets must be extremely smooth in order to minimize hydrodynamic instabilities.With GDP techniques, it is possible to obtain coatings without any growing structures and thus only with very small nodules at the surface by controlling the coating parameters and having low deposition rates (lower than 0.5 m/h). This allows to obtain high mode roughness lower than 10 nm. Nevertheless, this is not sufficient to obtain LMJ specifications especially at intermediate modes which are strongly degraded by local defects ("bumps"). In order to eliminate mostly of these singular points that could be the source of the defects, etching during the film growth can be useful. In this work, we show how we reduced the roughness of germanium doped CHx microshells by adding helium in the plasma or pulsing hydrogen in order to have an exacerbated etching effect and also a higher surface temperature and thus a better mobility of the adsorbed species.By controlling these parameters, we obtained germanium doped CHx microshells compatible with the LMJ specifications. The RMS roughness from modes 10 to 1000 is lower than 20 nm and from modes 2 to 10 is around 160 nm.New designs of graded germanium doped microshells improve the stability of the target to hydrodynamic instabilities. This allows relaxing the specification of the roughness. The first microshells were synthesized and the results are presented in this paper.