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Fusion Science and Technology
Fukiushima Daiichi: 10 years on
The Fukushima Daiichi site before the accident. All images are provided courtesy of TEPCO unless noted otherwise.
It was a rather normal day back on March 11, 2011, at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant before 2:45 p.m. That was the time when the Great Tohoku Earthquake struck, followed by a massive tsunami that caused three reactor meltdowns and forever changed the nuclear power industry in Japan and worldwide. Now, 10 years later, much has been learned and done to improve nuclear safety, and despite many challenges, significant progress is being made to decontaminate and defuel the extensively damaged Fukushima Daiichi reactor site. This is a summary of what happened, progress to date, current situation, and the outlook for the future there.
C. C. Petty
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 48 | Number 2 | October 2005 | Pages 1159-1169
Technical Paper | DIII-D Tokamak - Radio-Frequency Heating and Current Drive | dx.doi.org/10.13182/FST05-A1068
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
Two methods of radio-frequency (rf) current drive that are well suited to controlling and sustaining the current profile in burning plasma experiments have been studied in the DIII-D tokamak. Fast-wave current drive (FWCD) gave centrally peaked current densities that increased linearly with central electron temperature. While high harmonic absorption of the fast waves on energetic beam ions could reduce the available power for current drive, FWCD figures of merit as high as FW = 0.5 × 1019 A/m2W were still achieved. Electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) was shown to be localized to the region of power deposition, with a current drive efficiency that decreased as the magnetic well depth increased. The detrimental effect of the magnetic well could be mitigated by raising the electron beta. ECCD figures of merit as high as EC = 0.5 × 1019 A/m2W were measured for central deposition. The experimental FWCD and ECCD were both extensively tested against theoretical models and were found to be in excellent agreement. Validation of these predictive models of rf current drive aids in scenario development for next-step tokamaks.