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Optimal Thermal-Hydraulic Performance for Helium-Cooled Divertors

Michael G. Izenson, Jerry L. Martin

Fusion Science and Technology

Volume 29 / Number 4 / July 1996 / Pages 545-558


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Normal flow heat exchanger (NFHX) technology offers the potential for cooling divertor panels with reduced pressure drops (<0.5% Δp/p), reduced pumping power (<0.75% pumping/thermal power), and smaller duct sizes than conventional helium heat exchangers. Furthermore, the NFHX can easily be fabricated in the large sizes required for divertors in large tokamaks. Recent experimental and computational results from a program to develop NFHX technology for divertor cooling using porous metal heat transfer media are described. We have tested the thermal and flow characteristics of porous metals and identified the optimal heat transfer material for the divertor heat exchanger. Methods have been developed to create highly conductive thermal bonds between the porous material and a solid substrate. Computational fluid dynamics calculations of flow and heat transfer in the porous metal layer have shown the capability of high thermal effectiveness. An 18-kW NFHX, designed to meet specifications for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor divertor, has been fabricated and tested for thermal and flow performance. Preliminary results confirm design and fabrication methods.

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