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Toward Long-Pulse, High-Performance Discharges in Tore Supra: Experimental Knowledge and Technological Developments for Heat Exhaust

Tore Supra Team

Fusion Science and Technology

Volume 29 / Number 4 / July 1996 / Pages 417-448


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In view of high-power, long-pulse steady-state operation, Tore Supra has incorporated in its design the active control of heat and particles in a realistic environment. In the early experimental phase of Tore Supra, the first generation of plasma-facing components was tested, and these tests provided much physics and technological information and illuminated various operational difficulties. In particular, these experiments revealed the weakness of the graphite-to-metal brazing process originally adopted for actively cooled high-heat-flux components. Consequently, a new inner-wall technology was developed in 1994 and is to be tested in 1995–1996 with a totally rebuilt 40-deg toroidal sector. A carbon-fiber—reinforced carbon-metal compound is based on the newest brazing technology and rigorous quality control. Components such as the toroidal pump limiter and the guard limiters of plasma-heating antennas are being developed in the same way. For structures where brazing is difficult, boron carbide-coated components have been developed and installed in Tore Supra. For lower heat fluxes, a bolted concept has been designed and tested. The influence of inner-first-wall misalignment in Tore Supra on the power exhaust limitation of brazed components has been studied. Results from the technological development for the different power exhaust systems and the associated experimental knowledge obtained during plasma operation in Tore Supra are presented.

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