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Research and Developments of Russian Nuclear Centres in Tritium Technology

Lev F. Belovodskii, Viktor K. Gaevoy, Aleksei V. Golubev

Fusion Science and Technology

Volume 28 / Number 3P1 / October 1995 / Pages 470-478


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Physical and chemical properties of tritium (T) and its oxides (T2O, DTO, HTO) were experimentally researched; hence, the following was identified: T to T2O conversion mechanisms due to radiation oxidation and isotope exchange in the T concentration range from 10E-8 to 600 Ci/1 in gaseous media of technological equipment (air, argon, hydrogen and their mixtures); diffusion, solubility, sorption and desorption constants of T and T2O in interaction process with structural materials of technological equipment (metals, polymers); properties of T oxidation catalysts (Pt, Pd, Ni, CuO, PdO) for various gas mixtures; properties of moisture adsorbents: synthetic molecular sieve, alumogel and silica gel at different T2O specific activity; mechanisms of waste formation: gaseous, liquid, solid - when T is operated on. Based on the accomplished research the following was developed: technical requirements to technological equipment and equipment units: boxes, containers, receivers, appliances; methods and devices to extract T and T2O from gases: absorbing elements, filters, gas cleaners; facilities for safe T storage in T2O adsorbed on sieve NaA with helium-3 extraction; technologies and devices to extract T and T2O from solid wastes as well as for liquid waste solidification. The developments implemented in the T items production have reduced personnel exposure doses by∼ 50 times and T-releases to the environment by∼200 times.

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