Nuclear heat deposition rates in the structural components of a fusion reactor, have been measured directly with a microcalorimeter incorporated with an intense deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron source, the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), under the framework of the JAERI/U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) collaborative program on fusion neutronics. Structural materials of aluminum, titanium, iron, nickel, molybdenum, and Type 304 stainless steel, along with a ceramic of Li2CO3, have been studied with a small-size single probe configuration, subjecting them to D-T neutrons. Heat deposition rates at positions up to 200 mm of depth in a Type 304 stainless steel assembly bombarded with D-T neutrons were measured along with these single probe experiments. The measured heating rates were compared with comprehensive calculations in order to verify the adequacy of the currently available database relevant to the nuclear heating. In general, calculations with data of JENDL-3 and ENDL-85 libraries gave good agreement with experiments for all single probe materials, whereas RMCCS, based on ENDF/B-V, suffered from unreasonable overestimation in the heating number. For Li2CO3 with a low heat conduction coefficient, analysis was carried out by using a heat transfer calculation code ADINAT, coupled with the neutron and gamma-ray transport DOT3.5. It was demonstrated that the nuclear/thermal coupled calculation is a powerful tool to analyze the time-dependent temperature change due to the heat transfer in the probe materials. The analysis for the Type 304 stainless steel assembly, based on JENDL-3, demonstrated that the calculation, in general, was in good agreement with the measurement up to 200 mm of depth along the central axis of the assembly. The experimental approach demonstrated in this study clearly showed the feasibility of the calorimeter to measure the nuclear heating for the neutron field where the 14-MeV contribution is relatively small in comparison with the low-energy neutron contribution.