This paper describes model calculations and nuclear data evaluations of photonuclear reactions on isotopes of C, O, Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Cu, Ta, W, and Pb for incident photon energies up to 150 MeV. The calculations, using the GNASH code, include giant-dipole resonance and quasi-deuteron models for photoabsorption. The emission of secondary particles and gamma rays is computed using preequilibrium theory, together with an open-ended sequence of compound nucleus decays using the Hauser-Feshbach theory. The accuracy of the calculated and evaluated cross sections is assessed through extensive comparisons with measured cross sections, average neutron multiplicities, and energy-dependent emission spectra. The evaluated nuclear data files (ENDF) facilitate radiation transport studies of the importance of photonuclear reactions in a number of technologies including photoneutrons produced in electron/photon accelerators, shielding studies, and nondestructive detection of nuclear materials. A companion paper describes developments in the MCNP and MCNPX codes to utilize these data in transport simulations.