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Fast Switching and Power Combination of High-Power Electron Cyclotron Wave Beams: Principles, Numerical Results, and Experiments

W. Kasparek; M. Petelin; V. Erckmann; D. Shchegolkov; A. Bruschi; S. Cirant; A. Litvak; M. Thumm; B. Plaum; M. GrĂ¼nert; M. Malthaner; ECRH Groups at IPP Greifswald, FZK Karlsruhe, IPF Stuttgart

Fusion Science and Technology

Volume 52 / Number 2 / August 2007 / Pages 281-290


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To combine powers from a set of gyrotrons and to switch the combined wave beam between a number of output channels, various kinds of multiplexers can be used. Especially, narrow-band frequency diplexers in connection with small frequency-shift keying of gyrotrons can be used to switch the millimeter-wave power between two output channels. This technique can, for example, be used for fast beam steering for synchronous stabilization of rotating neoclassical tearing modes in tokamaks. Beam steering can be performed by a multistage multiplexer, provided that phase-controlled sources are available.

In the paper, various concepts for fast directional switches as well as their integration into transmission lines are discussed. Calculations and low-power measurements of prototypes are presented. A resonant diplexer experiment is at present being prepared to be tested at high power in the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) system for Wendelstein 7X (W7-X). Requirements and techniques for frequency control of the gyrotrons are discussed, and the results of preliminary frequency modulation experiments are shown. Finally, future prospects for the application of diplexers in large ECRH systems are discussed.

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