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Design Features of ITER Cooling Water Systems to Minimize Environmental Impacts

Babulal Gopalapillai et al.

Fusion Science and Technology

Volume 61 / Number 1T / January 2012 / Pages 113-118


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ITER is a joint international fusion facility which is being built in France to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion power. ITER will pave the way for the commercial exploitation of nuclear fusion to meet the ever increasing energy needs of mankind. Fusion power at ITER is generated using a Tokamak machine in which burning plasma inside the vacuum vessel at temperatures in excess of 150 million °C is confined by magnetic fields. The heat energy generated from the Tokamak and the auxiliary systems is removed by the Cooling Water System (CWS). The cooling water system is designed to remove the total peak heat load of about 1100 MW to the atmosphere by circulating approximately 25,000 m3 of water of diverse chemical specifications in multiple loops.

The design of the cooling water systems considers occupational health and safety, nuclear safety, radiation protection, and environmental protection requirements. Minimizing environmental impact is a major factor in demonstrating the viability of fusion energy as a future energy source. This paper presents the features in the design of CWS for making it environmentally friendly.

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