Space Nuclear Conference 2005 (SNC '05) will be the first topical meeting organized by the Aerospace Nuclear Science and Technology technical group. NASA funding has recently started to flow to research and development entities as Project Prometheus (formerly the Space Nuclear Initiative) has been established and funded to develop capabilities for unmanned and manned missions to Mars and beyond. The common technical opinion is that nuclear-based power and propulsion technology will be necessary for successful missions of these types. The primary purpose of this meeting is to bring together and to provide a forum for communications and information exchange for the wide cross section of research and management personnel from government, industry, academia, and the national laboratory system that are involved in the initiative. To this end, the meeting will address topics ranging from overviews of the programs, plans, and schedules related to the initiative to detailed issues related to space travel such as materials and shielding needs, human-machine considerations, design of nuclear power and propulsion systems, safety, etc.